and Territories Association
The New Caledonian archipelago mainly consists of Grande-Terre (16,374 km²) oriented along a northwest-southeast axis, the Pine Island (150 km²) in the South; the Belep archipelago (70 km²) in the Northwest and the Loyalty Islands (Lifou, Mare, Ouvea and Tiga) covering 1,981 km in the East. Grande-Terre is characterized by a central chain which rises to 1,629 meters with rounded peaks and steep-sided slopes, separating two asymmetric sides, the eastern slope being steeper. The Loyalty Islands, with a low and flat relief, are old, unevenly raised coral atolls.
The climate is tropical with a warm and wet period (November-March) and a cool period (June to August). The climate is moderated by a flow of trade winds. Annual temperatures vary on average from 22 to 25 ° C. Humidity ranges between 73% and 81%.
Its flora is rich, with the endemism rate of its plants estimated at 76%. The cagou is the emblematic bird of New-Caledonia.
New Caledonia has a special “sui generis” status as defined by Title XIII of the French Constitution, which provides for an organisation adapted to its own identity constituting an original model, invented to define a shared sovereignty with France. The organisation of New Caledonia is laid down in Organic Law No 99-209 of 19 March 1999, arising from the Noumea Accord. Its citizens are French citizens.
New Caledonia’s institutions are: the Congress, the Government, the Customary Senate, the Economic, Social and Environmental Council and the Customary Councils. France is represented by the High Commissioner of the Republic.
The country’s main economic activities are nickel mining and metallurgy, services, tourism, fisheries and aquaculture of shrimp, as well as a local industry, including in the area of food-processing.
A land of contrasts, New Caledonia, seeks to reconcile the exploitation of its mineral resources with the protection of its unique biodiversity. In the context of sustainable development, the “mineral resources development scheme”, adopted in 2009, provides tools to ensure respect for the environment: the National Center for Research and Technology (CNRT) on nickel, a Charter of good mining practices, and the Mining Code.
The energy mix of New-Caledonia’s electricity production is still largely dominated by fossil combustibles (fuel oil, coal) but the New-Caledonia government has shown high ambitions in the energy transition towards renewable energies. In 2016, the Energy Transition Plan (STENC) was adopted. The STENC sets out the objectives by 2030 for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in New-Caledonia, as well as for developing renewable energies.
GDP: 944 billion F.CFP (2015)
GDP per capita: 3.49 million F.CFP (2015)
New-Caledonia is increasingly taking part in EU programmes. So far, it has been successfully involved in Horizon 2020, Cosme, Erasmus+, BEST2.0 and European Solidarity Corps.
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